Download or read book Egyptian Origin of the Book of Revelation PDF or another Format written by John H. C. Pippy and published by John Pippy. This book was released on 2011-12-27 with total page 666 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This in-depth treatise presents conclusive evidence for an extremely close relationship between ancient Egyptian religious beliefs and the Book of Revelation. Practically all characters, scenes and series of scenes found in Revelation have parallels in mainstream Egyptian sources, including the Book of the Dead, the Amduat, Book of Gates, Book of Aker, Books of the Heavens and others. Parallel characters include Egypt's Apophis as Revelation's Satan while situations and activities in scenes include the judgment scene and singers by a lake of fire. Parallel sequences of scenes include those found in the 2nd to 12th Divisions of the Book of Gates and most of Revelation's Chapters 15-21. Allusions to the Book of Dead are common. Finally, a key conclusion: the entire structure of the Book of Revelation can be accounted for in the organization of text and paintings on the walls and ceilings of the tomb of Ramesses VI in Egypt's Valley of the Kings. Fully referenced to enable critical review. See revorigin.com
Download or read book Egyptian Origin of the Book of Revelation PDF or another Format written by Egyptian Origin of the Book of Revelation John H. C. Pippy and published by John H.C. Pippy. This book was released on 2010-04-25 with total page 664 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This book describes numerous parallels between Christianity's Book of Revelation and the religious beliefs of ancient Egyptians. Parallels include Revelation's God on the throne, Christ, the Lamb, the devil, the two beasts, mark of the beast, false prophet and the tribes of Israel. All appear in the same order as in mainstream Egyptian texts such as the Amduat and the Book of Gates. Significantly, parallel characters, events and series of events appear in same order in both sources, including: the opening of the scroll in Rev 5, the two witnesses in Rev 11, song of Moses in Rev 15, the beasts of Rev 13, the harlot and the kings in Rev 17, the millennium, resurrection and judgment in Rev 20 and the arrival of a new creation in Rev 21. Allusions to the Book of the Dead are common. Finally, the entire structure and most of the content of the Book of Revelation can be accounted for in a the layout of paintings on the walls a single tomb in Egypt. Target audience:archeologists, Egyptologists and Bible scholars.
Author : Moustafa Gadalla
Publisher : Moustafa Gadalla
Release Date : 2016-12-02
ISBN 10 : 9781931446754
Pages : 168 pages
Rating : 4.4/5 (931 users)
Download or read book Ancient Egyptian Roots of Christianity, Expanded 2nd Edition PDF or another Format written by Moustafa Gadalla and published by Moustafa Gadalla. This book was released on 2016-12-02 with total page 168 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Egyptian roots of Christianity, both historically and spiritually. This book reveals the Ancient Egyptian roots of Christianity, both historically and spiritually. This Expanded Version of the book consists of three parts to coincide with the terms of trinity. The first part demonstrates that the major biblical ancestors of the biblical Jesus are all Ancient Egyptian prominent characters. The second part demonstrates that the accounts of the “historical Jesus” are based entirely on the life and death of the Egyptian Pharaoh, Twt/Tut-Ankh-Amen. The third part demonstrates that the “Jesus of Faith” and the Christian tenets are all Egyptian in origin—such as the essence of the teachings/message, the creation of the universe and man (according to the Book of Genesis), as well as the religious holidays. The very thing that is now called the Christian religion was already in existence in Ancient Egypt, long before the adoption of the New Testament. The British Egyptologist, Sir E. A. Wallis Budge, wrote in his book, The Gods of the Egyptians , The new religion (Christianity) which was preached there by St. Mark and his immediate followers, in all essentials so closely resembled that which was the outcome of the worship of Osiris, Isis, and Horus. The similarities, noted by Budge and everyone who has compared the Egyptian Osiris/Isis/ Horus allegory to the Gospel story, are striking. Both accounts are practically the same, e.g. the supernatural conception, the divine birth, the struggles against the enemy in the wilderness, and the resurrection from the dead to eternal life. The main difference between the “two versions”, is that the Gospel tale is considered historical and the Osiris/Isis/Horus cycle is an allegory. The spiritual message of the Ancient Egyptian Osiris/Isis/Horus allegory and the Christian revelation is exactly the same. The British scholar A.N. Wilson pointed out in his book, Jesus: The Jesus of History and the Christ of Faith are two separate beings, with very different stories. It is difficult enough to reconstruct the first, and in the attempt we are likely to do irreparable harm to the second. This book will demonstrate that the “Jesus of History”, the ”Jesus of Faith”, and the tenets of Christianity are all Ancient Egyptian. This will be done without causing any “irreparable harm” as per A.N. Wilson’s concern, for two main reasons: Firstly, the truth must be told. Secondly, explaining Christian tenets via their original Ancient Egyptian contexts will enhance the idealism of Christianity. This Expanded Version of the book consists of three parts to coincide with the terms of trinity—the Three that are Two that are One. The first part demonstrates that the major biblical ancestors of the biblical Jesus are all Ancient Egyptian prominent individuals. The second part demonstrates that the accounts of the “historical Jesus” are based entirely on the life and death of the Egyptian Pharaoh, Twt/Tut- Ankh-Amen. The third part demonstrates that the “Jesus of Faith” and the Christian tenets are all Egyptian in origin—such as the essence of the teachings/message, the creation of the universe and man (according to the Book of Genesis), as well as the religious holidays. There is an undeniable irony and a profound, deep, undeniable truth in Hosea’s prophetic saying, Out of Egypt have I called my Son. A deep irony indeed. Let us open our minds and review the available evidence. For the truth is a composite of different and complementary pieces of a puzzle. Let us put the pieces in the right location, time and order.
Download or read book LUCIANITY PDF or another Format written by John Byer and published by Gatekeeper Press. This book was released on 2021-03-30 with total page 442 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Lucianity, the Perverse Religion of Christians is a book about the hidden history of the New Testament -- where it not only reveals the scripture’s mysterious origin … but also its very unique and clandestine creation. In this book, the reader will learn that Christianity, the religion that people sincerely believe and practice today, is not the religion of Christ. Instead, it is the religion of an overzealous disciple who was able to gain possession of every gospel and almost every epistle, in addition to most of the other manuscripts related to early church affairs, and then after the death of the apostolic authors, edit and rewrite them to reflect his peculiar religious beliefs and philosophy. For instance, he conflated Jesus with God, and called him Lord. That disciple is identified as Lucius, the Bishop of Cyrene, who unfortunately, never understood the spiritual nature of man, the spiritual resurrection of Christ, or the purpose for why God sent Christ on a mission to Earth. As a consequence of ignorance, and the lack of understanding by Lucius, man has unknowingly accepted the false and unorthodox beliefs of Lucianity which have been incorporated into the creeds, gospels, epistles, and a host of other bible-related documents. This newly discovered information was deciphered by a seasoned detective when he deconstructed the 2000 year old biblical scripture line by line, and verse by verse. All Christians, who number in the billions today, will be stunned and perplexed by his findings, especially all the ministers who promote the Bible as the true word of God. Some of it is, and some of it isn’t; nevertheless, this book identifies God’s true word in Isaiah and Daniel, and it even illustrates the exactness and preciseness of His word (plus other prophetic scripture), by the use of numerous exhibits — since the detective believes a picture is worth a 1000 words. Christ flipped over the tables of the money changers signifying the coming end to the desolation that existed in the Jewish Temple. In like manner, the detective has upset an applecart full of false beliefs which will hopefully awaken people to the realization of Lucianity (or modern day desolation), and usher in the resurrection of true Christianity. “Christians” will learn the unvarnished truth about their ascribed beliefs for probably the first time in 2000 years, and more particularly, how they have been bamboozled and conned by a very clever disciple. The Bible is the most sold, and most read, book in the entire world, and yet, not a single person in the world has recognized the fact that at least 75% of the scripture in the New Testament is really the prodigious work of a secretive, behind the scenes, apostolic era Bishop. In his writings, Lucius used ancient manuscripts and even a book by Flavius Josephus to write various gospel chapters -- not the spoken words of Jesus. While looking over the Detective’s shoulder, the reader will see and learn exactly how he identified all the fraud implanted into the pages of the Bible via easy-to-understand scriptural analysis and a variety of exhibits. As such, reading the New Testament is generally a waste of time, unless one has the persistence, capability, and patience to do a thorough, time-consuming, focused, multi-year, forensic exam like the one contained inside the pages of the book “Lucianity.” No similar criminal investigation of the Bible has ever been completed, and no similar book exists. If a person is searching for “just the facts” regarding their Christian faith, then the Detective assures all seekers of truth that they will know more about the Bible, God, Moses, Isaiah, Daniel, and Christ (i.e. the Anointed One of God) after reading Lucianity than they ever will by reading Biblical scripture. And more importantly, if they truly understand the message of Jesus Christ as revealed within the pages of this book, they should also learn something about themselves … no matter their status, rank, position, race, or sex, their incarnation is not an accident of nature, but a self-chosen, deliberate, purposeful spiritual event. Just like Christ, every man, woman, and child has come to Earth in order to fulfill a spiritual mission, not to fulfill a short-sighted worldly aspiration for material goods and wealth.
Author : Gerald Massey
Publisher : Cosimo, Inc.
Release Date : 2008-11-01
ISBN 10 : 9781605203126
Pages : 48 pages
Rating : 4.2/5 (65 users)
Download or read book Egyptian Wisdom in the Revelation of John the Divine PDF or another Format written by Gerald Massey and published by Cosimo, Inc.. This book was released on 2008-11-01 with total page 48 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: [T]he drama opens in Revelation the same as in the Book of the Dead, with the resurrection and the glory of the coming Son. Behold He cometh with the clouds, and every eye shall see Him. It is the risen Lord of Resurrection who says: I was dead, and behold I am alive evermore, and I have the keys of death and of hades (Ch. i 18). This is Horus of the resurrection risen from Amenta in his triumph over death and hell or Sut and Akar. He proclaims himself to he the all-one, Har-Sum-taui-Neb-U . Jesus, like Horus, is the faithful witness for the Father... from Egyptian Wisdom in the Revelation of John the Divine It goes unappreciated by modern Egyptologists, but it is embraced by those who savor the concept of a hidden history of humanity, and those who approach all human knowledge from the perspective of the esoteric. Gerard Massey 's massive Ancient Egypt: The Light of the World first published in 1907 and the crowning achievement of the self-taught scholar redefines the roots of Christianity via Egypt, proposing that Egyptian mythology was the basis for Jewish and Christian beliefs. Here, Cosimo proudly presents Book 11 of Ancient Egypt, in which Massey demonstrates how Scripture was created from the remains of Egypto-gnostic traditions, with little knowledge of the ancient wisdom upon which it drew, through the specific example of the Biblical story of the Book of Revelation and John the Divine. Using Egyptian mythology, Massey makes sense of the apocalyptic visions of Revelation by showing how they are actually the work of Taht-Aan, a pre-Christian John the Divine. Peculiar and profound, this work will intrigue and delight readers of history, religion, and mythology. British author GERALD MASSEY (1828 1907) published works of poetry, spiritualism, Shakespearean criticism, and theology, but his best-known works are in the realm of Egyptology, including A Book of the Beginnings and The Natural Genesis.
Download or read book CHRISTIAN ESOTERIC APOCALYPSE KUNDALINI SCIENCE PDF or another Format written by FRANK M. CONAWAY, JR. and published by Lulu.com. This book was released on 2015-09-06 with total page 132 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: THIS IS A CHRISTIAN SPIRITUAL DOCUMENT. I HAVE FOUND SEVERAL BOOKS THAT DEALT WITH A ANSWER TO REVELATION 13:18 OF THE HOLY BIBLE. I HAVE HAD THIS ONE BOOK FOR OVER FIFTEEN YEARS. THIS IS THE BOOK THAT I USED. WITHOUT FURTHER ADIEU, I PRESENT IT TO YOU. THE ANSWER I USED IS FOUND IN " APOCALYPSE UNSEALED " BY JAMES MORGAN PRYSE. IT WAS SAID TO HAVE BEEN PUBLISHED IN 1910. THE BOOK IS ALSO KNOWN AS " THE APOCALYPSE UNSEALED BEING AN ESOTERIC INTERPRETATION INITIATION ST JOHN THE BOOK IS ALSO KNOWN AS THE BOOKS IDENTIFICATION NUMBERS ARE ISBN - 10: 1564593363 AND ISBN - 13: 978 - 1564593368.
Download or read book The Egyptian Origin of Christianity PDF or another Format written by Lisa Ann Bargeman and published by Trafford Publishing. This book was released on 2009-02-03 with total page 107 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: A breakthrough book affecting the scientific, religious and literary communities, The Egyptian Origin of Christianity is a comprehensive look at the history of religion through the Literary Canon. As a culmination of years of research, this book fills the gaps between modern and ancient religious thought, providing us with the most valuable view of the Egyptian religion to date when compared with the The Bible and other classic literature. No other book has explored so well the origins of modern theology. This is done not only in terms of language, but also in terms of education, cosmology, physical symbolism and tradition. As the first book to, in a scientific sound way, challenge the ecumenical system, The Egyptian Origin of Christianity represents the fulfillment of strategy that calls for a comprehensive shift in the way religion is presently understood. For additional information, please go to http://ancientnile.co.uk/lb.html. "I must admit that your ideas are very interesting, more fascinating [than I had anticipated.] I have read it with great interest. You illustrate your ideas [with] the Egyptian texts. The Egyptian Origin of Christianity can fill 'the scientific hole' in this problem." Dr. Roman Szmurlo - PhD and Professor of Ancient Theology and Coptic Language at Warsaw University "Lisa Ann Bargeman's The Egyptian Origin Of Christianity offers an informative, iconoclastic analytical survey of those non-Biblical contributions to the concepts and ecumenical development of Christianity drawn from the Egyptian religious myths and rituals of antiquity. The juxtaposing of texts from the Bible and from the Egyptian Book of the Dead, the comparison of similarities between the story of Osiris and the story of Jesus, the observations of cosmology, physical symbolism, and tradition, are all revealed in startling and unexpected ways that will give serious students of both Egyptian and Christian metaphysics a great deal of food for thought and reflection. Lisa Bargeman adheres to a very high standard of scholarship both in her presentation and in her interpretative commentary. The Egyptian Origin Of Christianity is a welcome and much appreciated contribution to Metaphysical Studies." Midwest Book Review's Small Press Bookwatch
Download or read book Ancient Egypt PDF or another Format written by Gerald Massey and published by Cosimo, Inc.. This book was released on 2007-10-01 with total page 680 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: With his earlier two series in Egyptology, Gerald Massey turned existing doctrine on its head to argue that not only had Egypt spawned human civilization, but that Egyptian mythology was the basis for Jewish and Christian beliefs. The culmination of his years at this particular intellectual pursuit, Ancient Egypt: The Light of the World is Massey's crown jewel. In this, the most philosophical (in both tone and concept) of his Egyptological works, Massey, ever the intrepid escort, leads a tour through thousands of years of sociological, cultural, and spiritual development, all the while pointing, with dazzling reason and persuasive prose, to a distant, common, Egyptian origin. British author GERALD MASSEY (1828-1907) published works of poetry, spiritualism, Shakespearean criticism, and theology, but his best-known works are in the realm of Egyptology, including A Book of the Beginnings and The Natural Genesis.
Download or read book Ancient Egypt, the Light of the World PDF or another Format written by Gerald Massey and published by Black Classic Press. This book was released on 1992 with total page 410 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Gerald Massay was one of the first Egyptologists in modern times to realize that with the final eclipse of the incredibly old Land of Kam (a.k.a ancient Egypt), a light had been extinguished in world civilization. He was a man of protean interests and concerns - at once a poet, socialist, Shakespearean scholar, mythographer and Egyptologist. Part of his genius was the ability to look truth in the face and not flinch. Massey did in the cultural domain what modern paleontologists have done in the anthropological: pinpoint Africa as the crucible of humanity's story. In the first volume of Ancient Egypt, Massey was primarily concerned with elaborating how the first humans emergine in Africa created thought. What had been evident to him from the outset was that the myths, rituals and religions of ancient Egypt - or Old Kam - had preserved virtually intact a record of the psychomythic evolution of humanity. In the second volume, Massey examines the celestial phenomenon known as the Precession of the Equinoxes. He believed only by understanding this phenomenon was it possible to fathom Nile Valley history. He provides the reader with extensive detail on the interconnection of the two. The last half of the second volume is devoted to the Kamite sources of Christianity. Massey demonstrated the manner in which New Testament Christianity evolved directly out of the Osirian mysteries. Massey pioneered the effort the connect Old Kamite thought to its origin in Africa's antiquity. His conclusions, which are constantly being verified, showed that Kamite thought was the direct progenitor to the philosophy, metaphysics, religion and science that eventually shaped Western cvilization. -- from back cover.
Author : Albert Churchward
Publisher : Routledge
Release Date : 2015-06-03
ISBN 10 : 9781317587699
Pages : 422 pages
Rating : 4.5/5 (317 users)
Download or read book The Origin and Evolution of Religion (Routledge Revivals) PDF or another Format written by Albert Churchward and published by Routledge. This book was released on 2015-06-03 with total page 422 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Churchward’s The Origin and Evolution of Religion, first published in 1924, explores the history and development of different religions worldwide, from the religious cults of magic and fetishism to contemporary religions such as Christianity and Islam. This text is ideal for students of theology.
Download or read book Ancient Egypt - Light Of The World, Volume 2 PDF or another Format written by Gerald Massey and published by Jazzybee Verlag. This book was released on 2013-11-26 with total page 494 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This is part 2 of the Gerald Masseys work about the comparisons between the Judeo-Christian religion and the Egyptian religion. No one ever understood the mythology and ritual of Ancient Egypt so well as Gerald Massey since the time of the Ancient Philosophers of Egypt. This book is one of the best of its kind and a must-have for every student of Egyptian mythology and history.
Download or read book Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible PDF or another Format written by David Noel Freedman and published by Amsterdam University Press. This book was released on 2000-12-31 with total page 1512 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: The Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible gathers nearly 5,000 alphabetically ordered articles that thoroughly yet clearly explain all the books, persons, places, and significant terms found in the Bible. The Dictionary also explores the background of each biblical book and related writings and discusses cultural, natural, geographical, and literary phenomenae matters that Bible students at all levels may encounter in reading or discussion. Nearly 600 first-rate Bible authorities have contributed to the Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Intended as a tool for practical Bible use, this illustrated dictionary reflects recent archaeological discoveries and the breadth of current biblical scholarship, including insights from critical analysis of literary, historical, sociological, and other methodological issues. The editorial team has also incorporated articles that explore and interpret important focuses of biblical theology, text and transmission, Near Eastern archaeology, extrabiblical writings, and pertinent ecclesiastical traditions - all of which help make the Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible the most comprehensive and up-to-date one-volume Bible dictionary on the market today.
Download or read book Ancient Egypt Light Of The World 2 Vol set PDF or another Format written by Massey and published by Routledge. This book was released on 2013-10-15 with total page 256 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: First published in 2005. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
Download or read book The Tutankhamen Code PDF or another Format written by Malcolm Grant Hutton and published by Australian Self Publishing Group. This book was released on 2014-11-01 with total page 696 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: “ When Claude Tarba showed off a family heirloom in a crowded Arabian restaurant in Melbourne, that simple act of pride among friends didn’t go unnoticed. It set in motion a journey through the little known high mountain country of The Yemen; then on to the Italianate City of Asmara in the Ancient land of Eritrea and a hi-jacking, which landed him in Western Turkey. Eventually after a number of risky adventures that took him to the far southern reaches of Egypt, he found himself committed to a treasure quest which if proved successful would change the future perception of the human race for the next couple of millennia. Clues uncovered in the Tomb of the God King Tutankhamen entrance our unwitting hero and his new friends, committing them all through something more than curiosity to a trail of intrigue, with villains popping up everywhere, intent on stopping them from achieving their main goal, the installation of Claude as an honorary new Pharaoh. Despite foiling several attempts on their lives, Claude and his companions then have to contend with another scoundrel and his giant of a servant, who have their eyes on the treasure whatever it may turn out to be. The story takes us back into the ancient world of 18th Dynasty Egypt where we meet the legendary King Solomon who with his son and heir, plan and set the stepping stones that may only be discovered and followed by a future generation worthy enough to restore the glory and spiritual beliefs of the Egypt that once was. Not only is the narrative one full of thrills and unusual situations, it is also transports the reader into the colourful life of contemporary and ancient Egypt. The unexpected climax will have everyone thinking, ‘What really did happen thousands of years ago to kick-start civilisation as we know it today?’”
Download or read book Finding Your Benben Stone PDF or another Format written by Dr. Daniel E. Mitchell and published by Balboa Press. This book was released on 2014-12-05 with total page 415 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: " Since the advent of religion upon our earth, humankind has sought to spiritually connect effectively with the Supreme Being, Source of All, and Great Cosmic Creator. Today, many confused current and former followers of religious doctrines and churchgoers still question God about the reason for their existence. In other words, they are sincerely seeking to discover their life purpose while asking, "Why am I here?" In Finding Your Benben Stone: - Learn how to connect your mind with the universal quantum life force to awaken unto the highest level of spiritual Consciousness, and continually draw upon the infinite powers of the Great Cosmic Seed of Life within this New Age of Enlightenment. - Understand how to find your life purpose by following your intuition and passionate feelings. - Experience being set free of fear, worry, doubt, and lack of self-confidence by the all-powerful and encompassing comforter: The Spirit of Truth. - Discover how to enter the kingdom of heaven within you, so that you may receive the desires of your heart and experience the most imaginable bliss-filled life of abundance. "
Download or read book Lost Voices of Egypt PDF or another Format written by Mfon Edie and published by AuthorHouse. This book was released on 2011-09-26 with total page 153 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: By offering some insights into a key area of West Africa, this book attempts to take the wonders of Ancient Egypt out of the realm of myths and folklore. The credit for the longevity of Ancient Egyptian traditions belongs to their erstwhile scribes,who managed to keep extensive records of Egypts history and achievements over an exceptionally long period. The Anang, Efik, and Ibibio people also deserve recognition for maintaining a spoken language that has notchanged very much from that spoken by the Ancient Egyptians at the various stages of their development, and for perpetuating a very unique culture that allows for the uncomplicated linkage of these two worlds. Bystudying this ancient language and culture, we can pose some formidable questions about our presentquestions that shape our understanding ofthe genesis of the three main Middle Eastern religious movements, and that help explain the evolution of modern science.The fact that other venerated civilizations, including the Semites, Persians, and Greeks, represented Egyptian words inaccurately does not warrant perpetuating such corruption, as this would rob those words of their true essence. Much as the corrupted English words Ikobi, inokobi would not sound familiar to an English-speaker as the words To be, or not to be, neither do words like miri, kem, or osiris represent the Ancient Egyptian muara, ekim, and ase, respectively....... Page 56, re men kimi - In Efik, these corrupted words should read as uyo mn ekim, meaning black voices (voices of those who are black). Up until the earlier period of the present-day Copts, Egyptians referred to themselves as such: mn ekim. In a similar vein, the present-day speakers of this languageincluding the Efik, Ibibio, Anang, rn, Etinan, Uyo, Nsit, Ibun, Itu, Ikt Abasi, ft, Ediene, Eket, Abak, Ikt Aran, Ikt Ub, Oku, Itam, Muaa (iba)are described in similar fashion, i.e., mn so-and-so. In this case, mn is used in a generic manner as opposed to nu, which has particular relevance to family or ancestors.
Download or read book The Bible in Arab Christianity PDF or another Format written by David Richard Thomas and published by BRILL. This book was released on 2007 with total page 428 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This collection illustrates the place of the Bible in Arab Christianity as a source of authority and information about Christian experiences under early Islam, and the importance attached to upholding its authenticity in the face of Muslim criticisms.